The Hawaiian Islands sit on the Pacific tectonic plate. Hawai‘i is the youngest of the Hawaiian island chain.
The island of Hawai‘i is made up of 5 volcanoes.
- Kohala is the oldest. Kohala is considered to be extinct because it has not erupted for 60,000 years. Deep canyons have been eroded on the north flank of the volcano.
- Mauna Kea is the tallest volcano on the Island of Hawai´i, and when measured from sea floor to summit it is the tallest mountain in the world. In winter, you can see snow on its peak, and all year round it is covered by a glacier. The most recent eruption was about 3,500 years ago. Mauna Kea is considered a dormant volcano.
- Hualälai is the westernmost shield volcano on the Island of Hawai´i. The most recent eruptions of Hualälai occurred in 1800-1801. It is considered an active volcano. Two large flows reached the ocean. The Kona airport is built on the 1801 flow.
- Mauna Loa is the largest volcano on Earth. It makes up half of the Island of Hawai´i. Mauna Loa is considered very active, erupting 15 times since 1900. The last eruption was in 1984 and sent lava within 4 miles of Hilo.
- Kïlauea is the youngest of the volcanoes on the Island of Hawai´i. Much of the bulk of the volcano is below sea level. The present-day caldera formed in 1790 and contains a pit crater, Halema´uma´u. Kïlauea is in the shield-building stage and is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Over 90 percent of the surface is covered by lava less than 1,000 years old. The current eruption of Kïlauea began in 1983.
Hawai‘i is unique in the world. The Pacific tectonic plate has opened up another hot spot just off the coast of Hawai‘i Island. Volcanologists have the rare opportunity to see the earliest stages of island growth. Lö´ihi is the youngest volcano associated with the Hawaiian chain and is located under water 15 miles southeast of Kïlauea volcano. This volcano is active. The summit of the volcano is 3,178 feet below sea level. If Lö´ihi erupts at rates comparable to Kïlauea and Mauna Loa, it will reach sea level in a few tens of thousands of years.
The state of Hawaii consists of eight main islands:Kauai
, Niihau and Kahoolawe
and the The Big Island
. Each Island has its own official color and flower:
Island flowers and colors used to represent each island.
Niihau - Pupu Shell - White
Kauai - Mokihana (Green Berry) - Purple
Oahu - Ilima -Yellow
Maui - Lokelani (Pink Cottage Rose) - Pink
Molokai - White Kukui Blossom - Green
Lanai - Kaunaoa (Yellow and Orange Air Plant) - Orange
Kahoolawe - Hinahina (Beach Heliotrope) - Grey
Big Island of Hawaii - Lehua Ohia – Red
Did you know? Hawai‘i became the 50th state of the U.S. on August 21, 1959. Nicknamed the "Aloha State", Hawai‘i is made up of 8 main islands: O‘ahu, Kaua‘i, Maui, Lanai, Molokai, the Big Island, Kahoolawe and Niihau.
State Song: "Hawai‘i Pono‘i"
State Flower: "Yellow hibiscus"
State Bird: "Nene (Hawaiian goose)"
State Capital: "Honolulu"
O‘ahu - The Gathering Place
Facts: Population 876,156
Island Color: Yellow
Kauai - The "Garden Island"
Facts: Population 58,303
Flower: Mokihana (Green Berry)
Island Color: Purple
Maui - The "Magic Isle"
Facts: Population 117,644
Flower: Lokelani (Pink Cottage Rose)
Island Color: Pink
Lanai - "Pineapple Island"
Facts: Population 3,193
Flower: Kaunaoa (Yellow and Orange Air Plant)
Island Color: Orange
Molokai - The "Friendly Isle"
Facts: Population 7,404
Flower: White Kukui Blossom
Island Color: Green
Hawai‘i – The Big Island
Facts: Population 148,677
Flower: Red Ohia Lehua
Island Color: Red